This is the Summa de arithmetica, geometrica, proportioni et proportionalita, published by Luca Pacioli (1445-1509) in 1494. This was the most comprehensive mathematical text of the time and one of the earliest printed mathematical works. It contained not only practical arithmetic, but also algebra, practical geometry and the first published treatment of double-entry bookkeeping. On this page (f. 36v) Pacioli illustrates one of the methods of finger counting prevalent at his time in Italy.
Positions Of The Hands 1. Simple affirmative 2. Emphatic declaration 3. Apathy or prostration 4. Energetic appeal 5. Negation or denial 6. Violent repulsion 7. Indexing or cautioning 8. Determination or anger 9. Supplication 10. Gentle entreaty 11. Carelessness 12. Argumentation 13. Earnest entreaty 14. Resignation
The dumb language or the art of talking with the fingers. Coloured line engraving, published: Bowles & Carver, 69 St. Pauls Church Yard, London (Wellcome Library, London). Chirologia, or the naturall language of the hand. Composed of the speaking motions, and discoursing gestures thereof, by John Bulwer 1644. John Bulwer (1606-1656), was a doctor, who lived around Gray’s Inn in London.